At some point, if you’re talking to an unknowledgeable breeder, you’re likely to hear something like this: “My puppies come with AKC papers and a pedigree!”
They expect you to respond with an awed whistle.
Here’s a better response: O yay.
Now, you might be surprised to hear this, because you probably thought “AKC registered puppies” meant good quality. That’s what the AKC would like you to believe. But it’s not true.
AKC registration is simply a chain of numbers
The truth about “AKC registered puppies” is this:
- The AKC will register any puppy whose parents are registered.
- The AKC registered those parents because their parents were registered.
- And so on.
AKC registration is a mechanical process, a chain of numbers.
You send the AKC money. If the owners of your puppy’s parents and grandparents were all good doobies who kept the chain intact by sending in their own money, the AKC will add your puppy to the chain, sending you a piece of paper with a number on it. Voila…. your puppy is registered.
As Dr. Herm David, Ph.D. says, “The AKC has an infinite supply of numbers. It’s a good business to be in.”
“What about a pedigree? Doesn’t a pedigree mean good quality?”
‘Fraid not. Send more money, and the AKC will access their database again and spit out the names of your puppy’s parents, grandparents, great-grandparents, as many generations as you’re willing to pay for. Voila . . . your puppy’s pedigree.
A pedigree is a bunch of names.
Registration papers and pedigrees don’t tell you anything about a dog, other than its place in the chain of names.
To get registration papers or a pedigree, a dog doesn’t need to meet any qualifications of health, temperament, behavior, or structure.
None whatsoever. A dog can be sickly, vicious, knees pointing every which way, EVEN PURPLE – and the AKC will issue the exact same kind of registration number they gave to the Best of Breed winner at the Westminster Kennel Club show.
“Good grief! I thought AKC registered meant good quality!”
Don’t be fooled. Registration papers don’t suggest quality in a dog any more than they suggest quality in a car. Does buying a car with registration papers mean it won’t be a clunker? Of course not.
In fact, registration papers suggest quality in cars more than in bulldogs, because in most states a car can only be registered if it has at least passed a smog/pollution or mechanical safety check.
The AKC registers dogs with no health or safety checks at all.
So now you know that the existence of AKC papers or a pedigree doesn’t mean a dog is good quality. AKC registered puppies with pedigrees is just not a big selling point, no matter how loudly a breeder trumpets it in his classified ad.
“But papers at least guarantee that a dog is purebred, right?”
Boy, I’m really beginning to feel like the bearer of bad news here!
No. Being purebred means a puppy has inherited the limited combination of genes that have been “fixed” in his breed’s gene pool. These are genes for the particular size, type of coat, color pattern, shape of ears, and so on, that match his breed.
Inheriting the genes for his breed is what makes a dog purebred. Registration papers are a separate matter.
A dog can be purebred, yet have no registration papers. And…. a dog can have registration papers, yet still not be purebred.
It’s true. A dog can have registration papers, yet not be purebred, because registration papers can be falsified. Most registries, such as the AKC, operate primarily on the honor system. They simply take the breeder’s word for it that “King” and “Queen” were really the parents of Solomon.
But scams happen.
- Let’s say Dishonest Dave has two purebred Boxers with registration papers.
- The female is accidentally bred by a stray dog of unknown ancestry.
- Dishonest Dave is unwilling to give up the $600 he could get for “AKC registered Boxer puppies” so when the litter arrives, he fills out the litter registration paperwork – claiming that his BOXER was actually the father.
- The AKC will dutifully mail him Boxer registration papers for each puppy, which he will happily pass along to the buyer of each puppy…. collecting his $600 as he does so.
- And no one will be the wiser until the puppies grow up and start to look suspiciously non-Boxerish.
Fortunately, the AKC also offers a program where participating breeders can submit DNA samples of one or both parents to conclusively prove parentage. If you want to be sure of who your puppy’s parents are, look for breeders who participate in this program.
Do you have a puppy who came with AKC papers – or came without papers – and now you’re wondering if he really is purebred?
There’s only one way to find out: have his DNA tested.
A veterinary company will test your dog’s DNA and tell you whether he’s purebred. If it turns out that he’s a crossbreed or mixed breed, they’ll tell you that, too – and they’ll tell you which breed(s) he is.
You can do this right from your own home. No vet visit. No blood tests.
If you acquired your dog from a backyard breeder, or pet shop, or somebody’s ad in the newspaper or on the internet – it would probably be a good idea to find out whether he’s truly purebred.
Always remember that GENES make a dog purebred. The presence or absence of registration papers doesn’t change the genes (DNA) inside a dog. He can be purebred without having papers – and sadly, he can have papers without really being purebred. Only a DNA test can tell you whether he’s really purebred.
“So are papers and pedigrees worth anything at all?”
Oh, yes – let me explain. Many purebred puppies are offered for sale without registration papers, or with registration papers but no pedigree. These sellers will tell you that you don’t need papers/pedigree if you just want a pet. Papers and pedigrees, they might say, are only necessary if you want to show or breed your dog.
This is false.
Registration papers and pedigrees are the only way you can determine whether a puppy you’re considering buying has been inbred too much.
Excessive inbreeding can result in serious health and temperament problems as a puppy matures. Excessive inbreeding is one reason that so many purebred dogs are unhealthy or mentally unstable.
So you really DO want papers and a pedigree with a purebred puppy – not because their presence indicates a good quality dog, but because their ABSENCE means you can’t evaluate the puppy’s level of inbreeding. Thus you won’t know how much he is at risk for developing health or behavior problems as he grows up.
So now you know a little about registration papers and pedigrees and how they can be so helpful.
But you still need answers to these questions:
- When you look at a pedigree, how can you tell if there’s too much inbreeding? How much is too much?
- What does a “good” pedigree look like, anyway? What about a “bad” pedigree?
- If a puppy doesn’t have AKC papers, but instead has papers from a different registry (like CKC, UKC, ACA, APRI) – is this okay?
- If a puppy comes with something called Limited registration papers (rather than Full registration papers) – is this okay?